20180908

Another Grey... er Gray-ish Tongue

Not an update for the Grey Tongue, but I thought I'd drop this here as well:

I've recently completed work on a commission for a language coincidentally called Grayis, which you can peruse through over at Linguifex: https://linguifex.com/wiki/Grayis.

Grayis is spoken by the Grayis Kin, a race of space-faring aliens from the planet of Oyrigin, one of six races described in the soon-to-be-released board game Pilots of Gallaxia, designed by Stefan Rasporich of Infinite Mind Pictures, Inc. There will be a crowdfunding campaign launching soon to get the game into production soon: I'll post an update in the comments (below) when the campaign is open!

20180401

The Grey Tongue

Hello Gothlings!

I know it’s been a while since I’ve posted – blah blah blah, you know how all of these posts start – and I don’t have much time to post today either, but I wanted to stop by to deliver some exciting news about the language! Well, a couple of pieces of exciting news, actually.

First, I will be presenting a paper about the language at the 53rd International Congress on Medieval Studies in Kalamazoo on May 12th as part of a roundtable discussion about modern uses of medieval languages. If you happen to be there, please stop by and say hello!

Leading up to the conference, I’ve also been doing some more structural work on the language, and one thing seems of particular importance to share with you: I’ve changed the name!

From its inception, the name of this language has been some derivation of ‘Gothic’, with some various sound changes.  As the language has really started to develop its own identity apart from Wulfila and friends, I’ve felt more and more awkward about using it. That coupled with the fact that the anglicisation of Gutiška yields “Gutish,” which sounds more like a digestive condition than a language, led me to start looking for a new moniker.

Going back to the roots of Gothic, two of the main gothic tribes were the Greuthungi (or Griutuggōs) and the Thervingi (Tairwiggōs) – probably more literally ‘the steppe-dwellers’ (or maybe ‘stony-beach-dwellers’) and the ‘forest-dwellers’. In my mind, the Language-soon-to-be-formerly-known-as-Gutish is/was spoken by a population who are vaguely descended from the Goths, though they have about as definitive a relationship to the Ostrogoths and Visigoths as the French have to do with the Franks led by Charlemagne: That is, well, the name is similar…

After some deliberation, I’ve decided to give the language two names, actually. A nice Latinized English exonym: Valthungian (Walðungiška), language of the Valthungs (Walðungas), literally, the ‘language of the forest people’ (walðus being another more common word for forest). But in Valthungian, no one actually uses the word walðungiška apart from an occasional historical reference, just like the Germans speak Deutsch and not Germanisch. Or Allemanisch. Or Tedeskisch or Sachsisch or Nemezkisch or any of the other exonyms given to them by their neighbors. In Valthungian, the endonym is derived from the other tribe, the Greuthungi, but somewhere along the line, the etymology got a little turned around, and greut-ung was reanalyzed as grew-tung, and the language came to be called Grējutungiška ‘language of the grey-tongues’, or even sō Grējuga Tunga ‘the Grey Tongue’.

So in case you’re wondering what happened to Gutish, it’s still here, just rebranded in time for my paper!

20171220

Lexember, Day 20: Inversion, part I


Instead of a selection of new vocabulary today, instead I wanted to give a little bit of insight into a part of Gutish morphology that I’ve been smoothing out over the past few months.

When I give conjugations of verbs in those tables I set up for some of the Lexember blogs, I just give the base form [pronoun]+[conjugated verb], and in most languages that’s really all you need.  In Gutish it’s usually all you need as well, but the form of the verb can change slightly depending on whether it precedes the pronoun and/or is negative.

Inverted forms of verbs are very important in Gutish, because the V2 nature of the language makes the [verb]+[pronoun] format as common as the standard [pronoun]+[verb] order.  Irregular verbs are also more likely to have differences between their default and inverted forms.  Take, for example, wisna ‘to be’, the most common of verbs:

Ind. Sbj.
Prs. Pst. Prs. Pst.
ik im
þū is
is ist
s’īst
it ist
wit sījum
wīs sījum
jut sījuþ
jūs sījuþ
īs sinþ
ījas sinþ
ī sinþ
ik was
þū wast
is was
sī was
it was
wit wēsum
wīs wēsum
jut wēsuþ
jūs wēsuþ
īs wēsun
ījas wēsun
ī wēsun
ik sīja
þū sījas
is sīja
sī sīja
it sīja
wit sījam
wīs sījam
jut sījaþ
jūs sījaþ
īs sījan
ījas sījan
ī sījan
ik wēša
þū wēsis
is wēse
sī wēse
it wēse
wit wēsim
wīs wēsim
jut wēsiþ
jūs wēsiþ
īs wēsin
ījas wēsin
ī wēsin

Pretty straightforward.  The only oddity is the third person feminine singular present indicative, and that’s only because of a pretty basic sandhi rule (-ī+i- → -’ī-) – just make sure that you put the long vowel on the right side of the apostrophe!  But now let’s look at the inverted forms (alternate/optional forms are given in parentheses):

Ind. Sbj.
Prs. Pst. Prs. Pst.
imik
istu
istis
ist sī
istit
sījum wit (sījum’t)
sījum wīs (sījum’s)
sījuþ jut (sīju’t)
sījuþ jūs (sījuþ’s)
sinþ īs (sinþ’s)
sinþ ījas (sinþ’s)
sinþ ī (sinþ’s)
wasik (wažik)
wastu
wasis (wažis)
was sī
wasit  (wažit)
wēsum wit (wēsum’t)
wēsum wīs (wēsum’s)
wēsuþ jut (wēsu’t)
wēsuþ jūs (wēsuþ’s)
wēsun īs (wēsun’s)
wēsun ījas (wēsun’s)
wēsun ī (wēsun’s)
s’īk
sījastu (sīstu)
s’īs
sīja sī
s’īt
sījam wit (sīm’t)
sījam wīs (sīm’s)
sījaþ jut (sī’t)
sījaþ jūs (sīþ’s)
sījan īs (sīn’s)
sījan ījas (sīn’s)
sījan ī (sīn’s)
wēšik
wēsistu
wēsis
wēse sī
wēsit
wēsim wit (wēsim’t)
wēsim wīs (wēsim’s)
wēsiþ jut (wēsi’t)
wēsiþ jūs (wēsiþ’s)
wēsin īs (wēsin’s)
wēsin ījas (wēsin’s)
wēsin ī (wēsin’s)

There are a few different types of things going on here, but you’ll notice that the oddball from the basic form is the only one that doesn’t have any sort of deviation when inverted.  So as far as what’s going on here:

  • When the verb ends in a consonant, the pronouns ik, is, and it readily attach right to the verb without so much as an apostrophe or an apology.
  • The second person in all cases shifts from þū to -tu.
  • The plural forms are pretty straightforward, but they all have optional contracted forms which are slightly opaque, especially the third person plural, all of which have the same contracted form.

I’ll touch on what happens with negation and some other less common verbs in another post soon - particularly if I run out of new vocabulary to talk about!

20171219

Lexember, Day 19

A minimalist lexember entry, but timely:

kristismisa n.st.f.ō Christmas.
kristus n.st.m.u Christ.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. kristus kristis krista kristo
Pl. kristis krisčuga kristim kristins
misa n.st.f.ō mass, church festival. Lat. missa.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Smisamisismisa misa
Pl. misas misa misammisas

20171218

Lexember, Day 18

Something a little different today: Not all of these words are new (though most are), but I got on a tangent finding adjectives based on building materials with the Proto-Germanic suffix –īnaz (Gothic –eins), which causes some interesting things to happen phonologically to the base words (umlaut, verschärfung, and maybe even a few other German words).

ǣka [e̞ːkɑ] n.st.f.ō oak. Quercus species.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. ǣka ǣkis ǣka ǣka
Pl. ǣkas ǣka ǣkam ǣkas
ǣkins [e̞ːkins] adj.a oak, oaken, made of oak.

alúmine [ɑlúmine̞] n.st.n.ija alumin(i)um. Al.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. alúmine alúminis alúminia alúmine
alúminins [ɑlúminins] adj.a alumin(i)um, made of alumin(i)um.

bǣn [be̞ːn] n.st.n.a bone.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. bǣn bǣnis bǣna bǣn
Pl. bǣna bǣna bǣnam bǣna
bǣnins [be̞ːnins] adj.a bone, made of bone.

blījo [bliːjo̞] n.st.n.wa lead, plumbum. Pb.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. blījo blījugis blījuga blījo
blījugins [bliːjugins] adj.a lead, leaden, made of lead.

brasnas [brɑsnɑs] n.st.m.a brass.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. brasnas brasnis brasna brasna
bresnins [bre̞snins] adj.a brass, brazen, made of brass.

glas [glɑs] n.st.n.a glass.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. glas glasis glasa glas
glesins [gle̞sins] adj.a glass, made of glass.

klǣǧis[kle̞ːʤis] n.st.m.ija clay.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. klǣǧis klǣǧis klǣǧa klǣde
Pl. klǣǧis klǣǧa klǣǧim klǣǧins
klǣǧins [kle̞ːʤins] adj.a clay, made of clay.
krōme [kro̞u̯me̞] n.st.n.ija chrome, chromium. Cr.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. krōme krōmis krōma krōme
krœ̄mins [krø̞ːmins] adj.a chrome, made of chrome.

kwarǧ [kwɑrʤ] n.st.m.da quartz.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. kwarǧ kwarðis kwarða kward
kwerðins [kwe̞rðins] adj.a quartz, quartzen, made of quartz.

liðra [liðrɑ] n.st.n.a leather. Syn. fitla.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. liðra liðris liðra liðra
Pl. liðra liðra liðram liðra
liðrins [liðrins] adj.a leather, leathern, made of leather. Syn. fitlins.

līn [liːn] n.st.n.a flax, linen; cloth made of linen. Linum species.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. līn līnis līna līn
līnins [liːnins] adj.a linen, made of linen.

mapulðra [mɑpulðrɑ] n.st.n.a maple, maple tree. Acer species.
  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. mapulðra mapulðris mapulðra mapulðra
Pl. mapulðra mapulðra mapulðram mapulðra
mapulins [mɑpulins] adj.a maple, made of maple, made of maple wood.

marmul [mɑrmul] n.st.n.a marble.
  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. marmul marmulis marmula marmul
marmulins [mɑrmulins] adj.a marble, made of marble.

paporus [pɑpurus] n.st.m.u paper.
  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. paporus paporis papora paporo
Pl. paporis paporjuga paporum paporuns
paporins [pɑpurins] adj.a paper, made of paper.

stǣns [ste̞ːns] n.st.m.a stone.
  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. stǣns stǣnis stǣna stǣn
Pl. stǣnas stǣna stǣnam stǣnans
stǣnins [ste̞ːnins] adj.a stone, made of stone.

tero [te̞ro̞] n.st.n.wa pitch, resin. Cf. terui.
  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. tero terus terua tero
terwins [te̞rwins] adj.a resinous, made of resin.

þāfa [θɑːfɑ] n.wk.f.ōn clay, ceramic.
  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. þāfa þāfins þāfan þāfan
Pl. þāfans þāfana þāfam þāfans
þǣfins [θe̞ːfins] adj.a ceramic, made of clay. Syn. klǣǧins; of the two þǣfins refers specifically to a very fine clay.

tītane [tiːtɑne̞] n.st.n.ija titanium. Ti.
  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. tītane titanis tītania tītane
tītanins [tiːtɑnins] adj.a  titanium, made of titanium.

tunþus [tunθus] n.st.m.u tooth.
  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. tunþus tunþis tunþa tunþo
Pl. tynþis tynþjuga tunþum tunþuns
tynþins [tynθins] adj.a tooth, ivory, made of ivory.

wutla [wutlɑ] n.st.f.ō wool.
  Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. wutla wutlis wutla wutla
wytlins [wytlins] adj.a woolen, made of wool.

20171217

Lexember, Day 17

ǭðagi [o̞:ðɑgi] n.wk.f.īn luck, fortune, auspice.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. ǭðagi ǭðaginis ǭðagina ǭðagin
Pl. ǭðagins ǭðagina ǭðagim ǭðagins
ǭðaǧ [o̞:ðɑʤ] adj.a fortunate, lucky, auspicious.
gǣdo [ge̞ːdo̞] n.st.n.wa lack, dearth.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. gǣdo gǣdus gǣdua gǣdo
Pl. gǣdua gǣdua gǣdum gǣdua
prūma [pruːmɑ] n.wk.f.ōn plum.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. prūma prūmans prūman prūman
Pl. prūmans prūmana prūmam prūmans
prūmaðra [pruːmɑðrɑ] n.st.n.a plum tree.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. prūmaðra prūmaðris prūmaðra prūmaðra
Pl. prūmaðra prūmaðra prūmaðram prūmaðra
mapulðra [mɑpulðrɑ] n.st.n.a maple, maple tree.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. mapulðra mapulðris mapulðra mapulðra
Pl. mapulðra mapulðra mapulðram mapulðra
-þra [θrɑ] n.sfx.st.n.a tree. Becomes –ðra after vowels and liquids; otherwise –þra.
-ðra [ðrɑ] n.sfx.st.n.a See –þra.

Translation: Le Petit Prince, Chapter I

As a way to beef up some of my Lexember vocabulary, I decided to start translating Saint-Exupéry’s Le Petit Prince into Gutish.  I’ve completed the first chapter, and I thought I would present it here as a sort of Lexember supplement – if you look back over the last couple of weeks of Lexember entries, you’ll be able to see where most of the words come from! – and just to level up some of my nerd street cred, I’ve interspersed it with some random vocabulary, glosses, grammatical footnotes, and other language candy. Enjoy! 
- BPnJ

PS – I’m totally counting this towards Lexember Day 16… maybe Day 17 too, since I’ve been working on this for many hours and I’m well into the 17th by now!

Sā Līta Þjuðnils

Þenik1 inþatma sǣstin wintra2 mīnin was, saguok3 silðalikat biliþ in bōkan frāðatma forðumin walða swī «Insǣtis Dōviða» hehǣt. Þat gakátniða boaworm iži ǧus slǭk. Þarusǣjo galīkin þižas urǣtins:
1 No apostrophes when contracting inverted verbs or conjunctions with ik, is, or it, even if there is elision.
2 Age is measured in “winters” rather than years. If you are 30 years old, you are said to be in your 30th winter (even if it is summer).
3 The irregular past tense of sǣjun is such that it undergoes h-verschärfung in the preterite singular: saƕ → /sahu/ → /sagwu/ → saguo), but saƕt → /sahut/ → /sagwut/ → /sagūt/ → sagut in the second person.
Inþiža bōka þag kwiðnas4: «Þǣ Boans slūknaþ atlenǧa hantiǧuža iža inu īja kingun. Þanasīðis nī kutnanþīs wigna, jaþan īs slēpnaþ miðni þiža iftumina sǣs mēnaða disētinis.»5
4 Passive construction: þiǧin + past participle. 5 “Quotation marks” in Gutish are represented (in transliteration, anyway) as double-guillemets.
Þanu6 ǧupave mitaðik frāðos nenþins þis frumwalðis. Jaþan, avruðna lītis šugitœ̄ǧis, langok at skepin þō frumista urǣtin mīna. Þ’ōrǣtin mīna Reþia Ǣna. Sī swē galǣk7:
6 Þanu is roughly equivalent to jaþan. There is no semantic difference; only stylistic. 7 Galǣk, from galīkna, originally a weak class 3 verb (Got. galeikan < Pgmc. galīkāną), reanalyzed as strong class 1.
Ik ǭgiða þat ogumwerk mīn þǣm uswāsanam, jā im frā8 iva9 mīna urītni im gǣsiða.
8 Frā, past singular of frǣnan ‘to ask’, not to be confused with the preposition frā ‘about’. 9 Iva, a conjunction meaning ‘whether’, is the complement of java, the equivalent of ‘if’.
Ekīs10 andworðiðun, «Hū uns gǣšiþ hǣča?»
10 ekīs = eki īs.
S’ōrǣti mīna nī was biliþ hǣčis. Sī was biliþ boawormis iži disētiða ulvando. Þā urǣtik þō indǣl þis boawormis, duþa nī kunþun īja freþin þǣ uswāsnas. Īs þorvun sintīna skīrinin. S’Ōrǣti Mīna Reþia Twō galǣk swē:
Mik rerōðun þai uswāsnas þetik skyǧa bilīðna þos boaworma urǣtins, upnaža ǣða slutnaža, jā mik andaþrýsčin frā landwīsin, forgāftwīsinu, rǣninu, tungawīsinu. Jā inþis, bī sǣs wintrum, hindralǣðik hwā ī māte wisna wisnas11 silðalika livansmēri pinguris. Ik was koroherts þiža dislínguna mīnan urǣtina reþia ǣna reþia twōžu.
11 This sentence is an excellent example of one of two ways that the perfect is formed in Gutish. Intrasitive perfects are formed much as they are in English, German, or French, by using an auxiliary verb (in Gutish, always wisna) followed by the past participle. So hwā ī māte wisna wisnas means ‘what might have been’.
Þǣ uswāsnas nījo wǣt hun sundra nī 
Þǣ uswāsnas n-ījo wǣt hun sundra
The.nom.msc.pl adult.pl not-ever thing.acc any.prt separately neg
Les grandes personnes ne comprennent jamais rien toutes seules
freþinþ, jā þat ist þǣm barnam afmœ̄ǧinþ, 
freþinþ, þat ist þǣm barnam afmœ̄ǧinþ,
understand.3pl.pres.ind and that is the.dat.pl children.dat.pl exhaust.cau.prs.part
et c’est fatigant, pour les enfants
in ǣjugins atlawǣtis at skīrin dū im.
in ǣjugins atlawǣtis at skīrin im.
in eternity.acc.pl all-thing.acc.pl inf explain ben them.dat
de toujours leur donner des explications.
Þā kǭsik anþra bihǣtan, jā ik lǣs luftuskipa drīvna. Ik im þlugnas fǭ atlaþaðu þis miǧingarðis, jā it ist sanþ þeti landwīsi ist mis wisnas bōta. In braugo ǭgins kan ik sundradœ̄min Čīna Arisōnu. Java sist frafáriþ in nāta, swalika kynþi sīja avrave galǭva.

In rynia mīnažas livanis gakwímik filo managas mœ̄tins wiðra filo managa swēgnilǭsa ljuða gā. Ik im filo managa dūlnas12 miþem uswāsnam. Ik sǣjo im filo nēfua gā. Jā þat nī filo managa gabœ̄tiþ mīna mitan frā im gā13.
[In ˈryni.ɑ ˈmiːnɑʒɑs ˈlivɑnis gɑˈkwimˌik ˈfilo̞ ˈmɑnɑgɑs ˈmøːtʰins ˈwiðrɑ ˈfilo̞ ˈmɑnɑgɑ ˈswei̯gniˌlo̞ːsɑ ˈljuðɑ gɑː. ik im ˈfilo̞ ˈmɑnɑgɑ ˈduːlnɑs ˈmiθe̞m usˈwɑːsˌnɑm. ik ˈse̞ːjo̞ im ˈfilo̞ ˈnei̯fu.ɑ gɑː. jɑː θɑt niː ˈfilo̞ ˈmɑnɑgɑ gɑˈbøːtʰiθ ˈmiːnɑ ˈmitʰɑn frɑː im gɑː]
12 When regular processes cause /wu/ to occur in a closed syllable, it collapses to /uː/ (‹ū›). In the case of some class 2, 3, or 4 strong verbs with ‹w› immediately before the ablaut vowel, such as dwilna or swimna, this will occur in the past participle, e.g. dūlnas or sūmnas13 The other way perfects are formed in Gutish is represented here. Transitive verbs do not use an auxiliary; instead, the perfect is formed much closer to how the perfect was expressed in Gothic (although there was never a real Gothic perfect tense). The verb is conjugated normally in the tense most appropriate to the time being expressed, and the adverb gā is tacked onto the end of the clause – no awkward mucking about with participles or auxiliaries.
Þishwanu mœ̄čik ǣnan iži mis þūfta atlis šunskīr wisna, kǭsiðik þ’ōrītin14 mīna reþia ǣna, þō ī sintina wēriðik gā. Þarmiþ sōkiðik at finþna iva his ljuþs syninins kynþis was. Eki mis andhōvun sintina: «Þat ist hǣča.»
14 When a feminine singular noun that begins with /u/ follows the nominative or accusative definite article, sō+u or þō+u become, respectively, s’ō or þ’ō, hence þō urǣtiþ’ōrǣti. This is one of very few allowed instances of two subsequent long vowels.
Jaþan nī miðrœ̄ǧik nījo15 miþatma ljuða frā boawormam, nē forðumin walða, nē sternans. Jaþan mik anþnǣjugiðik þiža hœ̄þin is. Jaþan rœ̄ǧik miðitma frā briǧin, golvu, rīkiwitiu, halsgerðažu. Jaþan gabǭriða sā uswāsnas at mœ̄čin swē andaþāftna wer gā.
15 Double negatives! Oh no! While not obligatory, they’re also not wrong, and are sometimes preferred in phrases with negatives other than the explicit negative particle .

20171215

Lexember, Day 15

þarmiþ adv. therewith, with that, in this way, thus.
andaþaft adj.st sensible, rational, reasonable, practical.
jaþan cjt. then, and then, subsequently.
hœ̄þi n.wk.f.ī height hauhei
Nom.Gen.Dat.Acc.
Sg.hœ̄þihœ̄þinshœ̄þinhœ̄þin
Pl.hœ̄þinshœ̄þinahœ̄þimhœ̄þins
golf n.st.n.a golf.
Nom.Gen.Dat.Acc.
Sg.golfgolvisgolvagolf
Pl.golvagolvagolvamgolva

briǧa n.wk.f.jō bridge.
Nom.Gen.Dat.Acc.
Sg.briǧabriǧinsbriǧinbriǧin
Pl.briǧinsbriǧinabriǧimbriǧins

rīkiwite n.st.n.ja politics.
Nom.Gen.Dat.Acc.
Sg.rīkiwiterīkiwičisrīkiwičarīkiwite
Pl.rīkiwičarīkiwičarīkiwičimrīkiwiča

halsgerða n.st.f.ō tie, necktie, cravat.
Nom.Gen.Dat.Acc.
Sg.halsgerðahalsgerðahalsgerðahalsgerða
Pl.halsgerðahalsgerðahalsgerðahalsgerða

20171214

Lexember, Day 14

þishwažu prn. whoever
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg.þishwažuþishwižuþishwatmuþishwanu
Pl.þishwǣjuþishwižuþishwimuþishwinǧu
þishwatu prn. whatever
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. þishwatu þishwižu þishwatmu þishwatu
þishwaru adv. wherever
þishwanu adv. whenever
þishwīju adv. for whatever reason, whyever
þishūgu adv. however, in whatever way
þishwǣjugu adv. however much/many

20171213

Lexember, Day 13

gabœ̄čin vt.wk.1-ijan to improve, to ameliorate, to make better.
Ind.Sbj.Imp.
Prs.Pst.Prs.Pst.
Inf.:
gabœ̄čin
Prt:
gabœ̄činþs
gabōtiþs
ik
þū
is/sī/þat
wīs/wit
jūs/jut
īs/ījas/ī
gabœ̄ča
gabœ̄tis
gabœ̄tiþ
gabœ̄čim
gabœ̄tiþ
gabœ̄činþ
gabōtiða
gabōtiðas
gabōtiða
gabōtiðum
gabōtiðuþ
gabōtiðun
gabœ̄ča
gabœ̄čis
gabœ̄ča
gabœ̄čim
gabœ̄čiþ
gabœ̄čin
gabōtiǧa
gabōtiðis
gabōtiðe
gabōtiðim
gabōtiðiþ
gabōtiðin

gabœ̄ti
gabœ̄čiða
gabœ̄čim
gabœ̄tiþ
gabœ̄činda
kœ̄šin vt.wk.1-ijan to try, to prove, to taste, to test out.
Ind.Sbj.Imp.
Prs.Pst.Prs.Pst.
Inf.:
kœ̄šin
Prt:
kœ̄šinþs
kōsiþs
ik
þū
is/sī/þat
wīs/wit
jūs/jut
īs/ījas/ī
kœ̄ša
kœ̄sis
kœ̄siþ
kœ̄šim
kœ̄siþ
kœ̄šinþ
kōsiða
kōsiðas
kōsiða
kōsiðum
kōsiðuþ
kōsiðun
kœ̄ša
kœ̄šis
kœ̄ša
kœ̄šim
kœ̄šiþ
kœ̄šin
kōsiǧa
kōsiðis
kōsiðe
kōsiðim
kōsiðiþ
kōsiðin

kœ̄si
kœ̄šiða
kœ̄šim
kœ̄siþ
kœ̄šinda
wērin vt.wk.1-ijan to keep, to preserve, to conserve.
Ind.Sbj.Imp.
Prs.Pst.Prs.Pst.
Inf.:
wērin
Prt:
wērinþs
wēriþs
ik
þū
is/sī/þat
wīs/wit
jūs/jut
īs/ījas/ī
wēria
wēris
wēriþ
wērim
wēriþ
wērinþ
wēriða
wēriðas
wēriða
wēriðum
wēriðuþ
wēriðun
wēria
wēris
wēria
wērim
wēriþ
wērin
wēriǧa
wēriðis
wēriðe
wēriðim
wēriðiþ
wēriðin

wēri
wēriða
wērim
wēriþ
wērinda

20171212

Lexember, Day 12

rynia n.wk.f.ōn course, flow, stream.
Nom.Gen.Dat.Acc.
Sg.ryniaruninsryninrynin
Pl.ryninsryniarynimrynins
mœ̄ti n.wk.f.īn meeting, encounter. Cf. mœ̄čin.
Nom.Gen.Dat.Acc.
Sg.mœ̄timœ̄tinsmœ̄tinmœ̄tin
Pl.mœ̄tinsmœ̄tinamœ̄timmœ̄tins
wiðramœ̄čin vt.wk.1-ijan meet, to encounter, to come across.
Ind.Sbj.Imp.
Prs.Pst.Prs.Pst.
Inf.:
wiðramœ̄čin
Prt:
wiðramœ̄činþs
wiðramōtiþs
ik
þū
is/sī/þat
wīs/wit
jūs/jut
īs/ījas/ī
wiðramœ̄ča
wiðramœ̄tis
wiðramœ̄tiþ
wiðramœ̄čim
wiðramœ̄tiþ
wiðramœ̄činþ
wiðramōtiða
wiðramōtiðas
wiðramōtiða
wiðramōtiðum
wiðramōtiðuþ
wiðramōtiðun
wiðramœ̄ča
wiðramœ̄čis
wiðramœ̄ča
wiðramœ̄čim
wiðramœ̄čiþ
wiðramœ̄čin
wiðramōtiǧa
wiðramōtiðis
wiðramōtiðe
wiðramōtiðim
wiðramōtiðiþ
wiðramōtiðin

wiðramœ̄ti
wiðramœ̄tiða
wiðramœ̄čim
wiðramœ̄tiþ
wiðramœ̄činda
gakwímna vt.st.4 to attain, to reach; to gather, to convene.
Ind.Sbj.Imp.
Prs.Pst.Prs.Pst.
Inf.:
gakwímna
Prt:
gakwímnaþs
gakūmnas
ik
þū
is/sī/þat
wīs/wit
jūs/jut
īs/ījas/ī
gakwíma
gakwímis
gakwímiþ
gakwímam
gakwímiþ
gakwímanþ
gakwám
gakwámt
gakwám
gakūmum
gakūmuþ
gakūmun
gakwíma
gakwímas
gakwíma
gakwímam
gakwímaþ
gakwíman
gakwýmia
gakwýmis
gakūme
gakwýmim
gakwýmiþ
gakwýmin

gakwím
gakwímaða
gakwímam
gakwímiþ
gakwímanda
filo adv. very, greatly.
ljuða n.st.m.i person, human. (Pl. = people)
Nom.Gen.Dat.Acc.
Sg.ljuþsljuðisljuðaljuþ
Pl.ljuðisljuðaljuðimljuðins
swēgnin vi.wk.1-ija rejoice, jubilate, celebrate
Ind.Sbj.Imp.
Prs.Pst.Prs.Pst.
Inf.:
swēgnin
Prt:
swēgninþs
swēgniþs
ik
þū
is/sī/þat
wīs/wit
jūs/jut
īs/ījas/ī
swēgnia
swēgnis
swēgniþ
swēgnim
swēgniþ
swēgninþ
swēgniða
swēgniðas
swēgniða
swēgniðum
swēgniðuþ
swēgniðun
swēgnia
swēgnis
swēgnia
swēgnim
swēgniþ
swēgnin
swēgniǧa
swēgniðis
swēgniðe
swēgniðim
swēgniðiþ
swēgniðin

swēgni
swēgniða
swēgnim
swēgniþ
swēgninda
swēgniða n.st.f.ō celebration, rejoicing, jubilation.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg.swēgniðaswēgniðisswēgniðaswēgniða
Pl.swēgniðasswēgniðaswēgniðamswēgniðans
swēgnilǭs adj.sa joyless, mirthless, serious, grave, severe.
atlis adv. at all, by any means, completely.
šunskīr adj.ri clear-sighted, clearly-seeing, lucid, “sight-clear.”

20171211

Lexember, Day 11

korus adj.u heavy, burdensome, oppressive.
koroherts adj.a heavy-hearted, disheartened.
dislíngun vi.st.3wa to fail, to falter, to stumble.
Ind. Sbj. Imp.
Prs. Pst. Prs. Pst.
Inf.:
dislíngun
Prt:
dislíngunþs
dislínguns
ik
þū
is/sī/þat
wīs/wit
jūs/jut
īs/ījas/ī
dislíngua
dislíngus
dislínguþ
dislíngum
dislínguþ
dislíngunþ
disláng
dislāft
disláng
dislúngum
dislúnguþ
dislúngun
dislíngua
dislíngus
dislíngua
dislíngum
dislínguþ
dislíngun
dislýnǧa
dislýngis
dislúnge
dislýngim
dislýngiþ
dislýngin

dislíngo
dislínguða
dislíngum
dislínguþ
dislíngunda
dislínguns n.st.f.i failure, faltering, stumbling.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc.
Sg. rǣnins rǣninis rǣnina rǣnin
Pl. rǣnins rǣnina rǣnim rǣnins
bōgna vi.st.7 to live, to dewll; to build a place to live.
Ind. Sbj. Imp.
Prs. Pst. Prs. Pst.
Inf.:
bōgna
Prt:
bōgnaþs
bōgnas
ik
þū
is/sī/þat
wīs/wit
jūs/jut
īs/ījas/ī
bōga
bōgis
bōgiþ
bōgma
bōgiþ
bōgnaþ
bebōg
bebōft
bebōg
bebōgum
bebōguþ
bebōgun
bōga
bōgas
bōga
bōgam
bōgaþ
bōgan
bebœ̄ǧa
bebœ̄gis
bebōge
bebœ̄gim
bebœ̄giþ
bebœ̄gin

bōg
bōgaða
bōgma
bōgiþ
bōgnada
wunan vi.wk.3 to live at/in, to dwell.
Ind. Sbj. Imp.
Prs. Pst. Prs. Pst.
Inf.:
wunan
Prt:
wunanþs
wunaþs
ik
þū
is/sī/þat
wīs/wit
jūs/jut
īs/ījas/ī
wuna
wunis
wuniþ
wunam
wuniþ
wunanþ
wuniða
wuniðas
wuniða
wuniðum
wuniðuþ
wuniðun
wuna
wunas
wuna
wunam
wunaþ
wunan
wuniǧa
wuniðis
wuniðe
wuniðim
wuniðiþ
wuniðin

wuna
wunaða
wunam
wunaþ
wunanda
atlaþaðu adv. to everywhere, “everywhither”
atlǣna  prn. everyone.
þishwanu adv. whenever, any time.

(I know this is a couple of days late and backdated... I just haven't had a chance until now to get the last few days typed up!)

20171210

Lexember, Day 10

ǭðaǧ (ǭðaga, ǭðagist) adj.a happy, glad. Cf. Got. audags

frǭs (frauga, fraugist) adj.wa happy, glad. Cf. Got. fraus

fās (fagua, fagust) adj.a happy, glad. Cf. Got. fahs

glaþs (glaða, glaðist) adj.a happy, glad.