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The Valthungian Blog is Moving!

I’m consolidating my various blogs about language into a single point-of-contact, which will hopefully mean that it will at least look like I post more frequently. So if all you care about is the continued development of Valthungian, future posts will be tagged with that name. If you’re also a fan of Maltcégj, you can look at that too. And you may just run across some recipes or various other things I go on about now and then. Check it out now at:


In the meantime...

I recently posted this in the Valthungian Facebook group, and thought I might as well add it here to the bloggosphere too.

Gǣl Ǭstra! (‘Happy Spring!’) – It just occurred to me that I should write something up about the various uses of “Happy” in Valthungian.

There are easily half a dozen words that could translate directly to ‘happy’ in English, but they are not all equivalent. When describing a person who is happy – i.e. a person who feels happiness – the most common words to describe them are fās, glaþs, or frǭs. Swēgnas is particularly celebratory – ‘jubilant,’ perhaps – and wižniǧ is more of a generally happy demeanor.

When wishing someone happiness on a holiday – i.e. an event which causes or evokes happiness – the options are greatly reduced. A day cannot be glaþs or wižniǧ or frǭs – these only apply to people.* The most common, used for most holidays, is fās; however, Christmas is always blīþ.** Of course, this is further complicated by the gender of the holiday in question, because irregular adjectives like fās and frǭs can have very different forms, e.g. neuter, fagun masculine, and fagua feminine… at least in the accusative, which is all we’re concerned with when wishing people happy things.

For holidays which begin with a vowel, rather than have an awkward pause in “fā … ǭstra!” use gǣl instead. Like the complement of glaþs, gǣls always refers to a happy event or occasion, and is never used to describe a person.***

Here are some Valthungian holiday wishes for reference:
  • Merry Christmas, Happy Yule – Blīþ Ǧul, Blīðna Ǧultin
  • Happy New Year – Blīþ/Fā Njuge Jēr
  • Happy Imbolc/Candlemas – Fā Halbwastra
  • Happy Spring/Vernal Equinox/Ostara – Gǣl Ǭstra
  • Happy Mayday/Beltane – Fagun Halbsumbra
  • Happy Mid-Summer/Litha – Fā Linþ
  • Happy Lughnassadh/Lammas – Fagun Halbharvist
  • Happy Fall/Autumnal Equinox/Mabon – Gǣl Harve
  • Happy Halloween/Samhain – Fagun Halbwintro
  • Happy Birthday – Fagun Gabórþisdag
  • Happy ____ Day – Fagun ____(+genitive) Dag

* Think of the word glad in English, discounting the particularly old-timey usage of things like “glad tidings.”
** Just like it’s always merry for Usanians instead of happy.
*** Well, it can be, but it doesn’t mean ‘happy’. German speakers, you know what I’m talking about!

Lexember 0nth: I quit!

Hello, Gothlings! It’s me, you know, that guy who writes here every day for two-thirds of December and then otherwise maybe twice a year. Anyway, I’m trying to make an effort to post a little more regularly and provide content that people might actually want to read. This isn’t one of those posts that has useful content or that anybody would want to read, but I just wanted let you know that they’re coming.

Mostly I wanted to post here today to say:

I quit Lexember!

Don’t get me wrong – I love Lexember, and it’s a great idea, but December is a bad month for me, and after three years of trying (two of which you can autopsy here on this blog), I realize it’s just not sustainable going into the holidays. Not to mention trying to get everything organized to have something in a nice format (e.g. on Contionary) to link to from a blog, and Facebook, and Twitter, and all that other junk. So for those of you wondering why my Lexember entries end abruptly each December with a dozen or so days to go, that’s why.


Lexember 19th: ‘stare; overlook’


/ferˈwiːt.nɑ/ trans. to stare at, to gawk at.
Via Middle and Old Valthungian from Griutungi ferwītan, cf. Gothic fairweitan, from ProtoGermanic ferweitaną.ītna


/ˌuv.rɑˈmut.nɑn/ v.wk.2 trans. to overlook, to neglect, to forget about.
From Middle Valthungian uvrmutnon, from Old Valthungian uvarmutnōn, from Griutungi ufarmunnōn, cf. Gothic ufarmunnōn, from ProtoGermanic ufarmunnōną.útnan

Lexember 18th: ‘model, template’


/ˌɑv.rɑ.gɑˈrai̯s.nɑs/ model, form, muse, original upon which something is designed or patterened.
From Middle Valthungian avrgarēfsns, from Old Valthungian avargarēhsns, from Griutuingi afargarēhsns, cf. Gothic *afargarēhsns, from ProtoGermanic *afargarēhsniz.


/ˌɑv.rɑˈmuns/ model, paradigm, prototype, template.
From Middle Valthungian avrmuns, from Old Valthungian avarmuns, from Griutuingi afarmuns, cf. Gothic *afarmuns, from ProtoGermanic *afarmuniz.

While there is a lot of overlap between the semantic space of these two nouns, the main difference is that the former tends to deal with physical objects or people (e.g. a ‘model’ posing for a painting) while the latter is more conceptual (e.g. a ‘model’ for city planning).

Lexember 17th: ‘French’


/ˈfrɑŋk.iʃk/ adj.a French.
From Middle Valthungian frankišk, from Old Valthungian frankisks, Cf. Old High German frankisk.šk


/ˈfrɑŋk.iʃ.kɑ/ n.wk.f.ōn French (language).
From Middle Valthungian frankiško, from Old Valthungian frankiskō.ška

Rīks þiža Franka

/riːks ˈθi.ʒɑ ˈfrɑŋ.kɑ/ France.
From Middle Valthungian þiže Franke (sā) rīks (“Kingdom of the Franks,” cf. German Frankreich), from Old Valthungian þižē Frankē sā rīks.īks_þiža_franka

Lexember 16th: ‘cool, chilly’


/kau̯ls/ adj.i ‘cool, chilly’
Via Middle and Old Valthungian kōls from Griutungi kōls, from Proto-Germanic *kōliz.ōls


/ˈkœy̑.li/ n.wk.f.īn coolness, chill.
Deadjectival noun from kōls, from Middle and Old Valthungian kœulī, from Griutungi kōlī, cf. unattested Gothic kōlei, from ProtoGermanic *kōlį̄.œuli

Lexember 15th: ‘suffer’


/ˈθul.nɑ/ v.wk.3 to suffer, to endure. (Used with the genitive, i.e. to suffer from.)
Via Middle and Old Valthungian from Griutungi þulan, cf. Gothic þulan, from ProtoGermanic þulāną.


/ˈθy.lins/ suffering, enduring.
From the verb þulan. (Verbal nouns from non-class-1 weak verbs were assimilated to the weak i-stem ending – including any applicable umlaut – around the time of Middle Valthugian. We would normally expect **þulans here, from a theoretical Middle Valthungian **þulens, from an attested Old Valthungian þulǣns, from Griutungi þulǣns, cf. Gothic þulains, from ProtoGermanic *þulainiz.)

Lexember 14th: ‘thunderstruck’

Swēva þīfuns þrundnas

/ˈswai̯.va ˈθiːfuns ˈθrund.nɑs/ adj.a thunderstruck, amazed, astonished, bewildered.
A phrasal adjective (the word þrundnas is declined to agree with its noun or pronoun), this is literally the phrase “as though struck by thunder,” i.e. ‘thunderstruck’.
From swēva ‘as though’ (from swē ‘so, as, like’ and iva ‘if, whether’) and þifuns, genitive of þīfua ‘thunder’, and þrundnas, past participle of þrindna ‘to strike’.ēva_þīfuns_þrundnas

Lexember 13th: ‘fault, guilt, excuse’


/disˈ v.wk.1ija to excuse, to exculpate.
From dis- ‘apart from’ and kulpa ‘guilt’.ýlpin


/disˈkyl.pi/ n.wk.f.īn excuse, extenuating reason.
From the verb diskýlpin.ýlpi


/inˈi.lɑ/ n.wk.f.ōn excuse, reason.
From Middle Valthungian inilo, from Old Valthungian and Griutungi inilō, cf. Gothic inilō, from ProtoGermanic *inilǭ.íla


/ˈkul.pɑ/ō guilt, responsibility, wrong.
From Middle Valthungian kulpa, from Latin culpa ‘guilt’.
Syn: ferina


/ˈfe̞.ri.nɑ/ō fault, responsibility, culpability.
Via Middle and Old Valthungian from Griutungi ferina, cf. Gothic fairina; further etymololgy questionable, possibly from ProtoGermanic *ferinō.
Syn: kulpa

Lexember 12th: ‘dedicate, dedication’


/usˈte̞ːk.nin/ v.wk.1ija (ditransitive) to dedicate (something) to (someone).
From Middle Valthungian ustǣknjen, from Old Valthungian ustǣknjan, from Griutungi ustǣknjan, cf. Gothic ustaiknjan, from ProtoGermanic uztaiknijaną.ǣknin


/usˈte̞ːk.nins/ dedication, public honoring.
From verb ustǣknin.ǣknins


Lexember 11th: ‘to entertain’


/ˈfrau̯ɡɑˌhɑlðɑn/ trns. to entertain.

From frǭs ‘happy, glad’ (via Middle and Old Valthungian from Griutungi frǭs; cf. Gothic fraus, from ProtoGermanic frawaz), and halðan ‘to keep’ (via Middle and Old Valthungian halðan from Griutungi haldan, cf. Gothic haldan, from ProtoGermanic haldaną).álðan

Lexember 10th: ‘lightbulb’


/ˈljuːðɑˌtuŋɡlɑ/ lightbulb.

From ljūþ ‘light’ (doublet of ljuguþ, via Middle Valthungian from Old Valthungian ljuhþ, ljuhaþ, from Griutungi liuhaþ; cf. Gothic liuhaþ; relationship to ProtoGermanic leuhtą uncertain), and tungla ‘planet, orb, sphere’ (via Middle and Old Valthungian and Griutungi tungl, cf. Gothic tuggl, from ProtoGermanic tunglą). We might expect -hwerb here (‘sphere, orb’ in the geometrical sense) instead of -tungla (which usually refers to stellar phenomena – “the heavenly spheres,” if you will), but this refers more to their ability to emit light than to their shape.ūðatungla